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The Qu'ran on Marriage


2:221 (Surah Al-Baqara): Do not marry idolatresses until they believe: a believing slave woman is certainly better than an idolatress, even though she may please you. And do not give your woman in marriage to idolaters until they believe: a believing slave is certainly better than an idolater, even though he may please you.

2:226 - 231 (Surah Al-Baqara): For those who swear that they will not approach their wives, there shall be a waiting period of four months: if they go back, remember God will be most forgiving and merciful, but if they are determined to divorce, remember that God hears and knows all. Divorced women must wait for three monthly periods before remarrying, and, if they really believe in God and the Last Day, it is not lawful for them to conceal what God has created in their wombs: their husbands would do better to take them back during this period, provided they wish to put things right. Wives have [rights] similar to their [obligations], according to what is recognised to be fair, and husbands have a degree [of right] over them: [both should remember that] God is almighty and wise.

Divorce can happen twice, and [each time] wives either be kept on in an acceptable manner or released in a good way. It is not lawful for you to take back anything that you have given [your wives], except where both fear that they cannot maintain [the marriage] within the bounds set by God: if you [arbiters] suspect the couple may not be able to do this, then there will be no blame on either of them if the woman opts to give something for her release. These are the bounds set by God: do not overstep them. It is those who overstep God's bounds who are doing wrong. If a husband re-divorces his wife after the second divorce, she will not be lawfull for him until she has taken another husband; if that one divorces her, there will be no blame if she and the first husband return to one another, provided that they feel that they can keep within the bounds set by God. These are God's bounds, which He makes clear for those who know.

When you divorce women and they have reached their set time, then either keep or release them in a fair manner. Do not hold on to them with intent to harm them and commit aggression: anyone who does this wrongs himself.

4:234 - 237 (Surah Al-Baqara): If any of you die and leave widows, the widows should wait for four months and ten nights before remarrying. When they have completed this set time, you will not be blamed for anything they they may reasonably choose to do with themselves. God is fully aware of what you do. You will not be blamed whether you give a hint that you wish to marry these women, or keep it to yourselves - God knows that you intend to propose to them. Do not make a secret arrangement with them; speak to them honourably and do not confirm the marriage tie until the prescribed period reaches its end. Remember that God knows what is in your souls, so be mindful of Him. Remember that God is most forgiving and forbearing.

You will not be blamed if you divorce women when you have not yet consummated the marriage or fixed a bride-gift for them, but make fair provision for them, the rich according to his means and the poor according to his - this is a duty for those who do good. If you divorce wives before consummating the marriage but after fixing a bride-gift for them, then give them half of what you had previously fixed, unless they waive [their right], or unless the one who holds the marriage tie waives [his right]. Waiving [your right] is nearer to godliness, so do not forget to be generous towards one another: God sees what you do.

4:240 - 241 (Surah Al-Baqara): If any of you die and leave widows, make a bequest for them: a year's maintenance and no expulsion from their homes. But if they leave of their own accord, you will not be blamed for what they may reasonably choose to do themselves: God is almighty and wise. Divorced women shall also have such maintenance as is considered fair: this is a duty for those who are mindful of God.

4:22 - 24 (Surah Al-Nisah): Do not marry women that your fathers married - with the exception of what is past - this is indeed a shameful thing to do, loathsome and leading to evil. You are forbidden to take as wives your mothers, daughters, sisters, paternal and maternal aunts, nieces, your milk-mothers and milk-sisters, your wives' mothers, the stepdaughters in your care - those born of women with whom you have consummated marriage, if you have not consummated the marriage, then you will not be blamed - wives of your begotten sons, two sisters simultaneously - with the exception of what is past: God is most forgiving and merciful - women already married, other than your slaves. God has ordained all of this for you. Other women are lawful to you, so long as you seek them in marriage, with gifts from your property, looking for wedlock rather than fornication. If you wish to enjoy women through marriage, give them your bride-gift - this is obligatory - though if you should choose mutually, after fulfilling this obligation, to do otherwise, you will not be blamed: God is all knowing and wise.

4:34 (Surah Al-Nisah): Husbands should take good care of their wives, with [the bounties] God has given to some more than others and with what they spend out of their own money. Righteous wives are devout and guard what God would have them guard in their husbands' absence.

5:5 (Surah Al-Ma'ida): The food of the People of the Book is lawful for you as your food is lawful for them. So are chaste, believing women as well as chaste women of the people who were given the Scripture before you, as long as you have given them their bride-gifts and married them, not taking them as lovers or secret mistresses.

33:49 - 50 (Surah Al-Ahzab): Believers, you have no right to expect a waiting period when you marry believing women and then divorce them before you have touched them: make provision for them and release them in an honourable way. Prophet, we have made lawful for you the wives whose bride-gift you have paid, and any slaves God has assigned to you through war, and the daughters of your uncles and aunts on your father's and mother's sides, who migrated with you.

60:10 -11 (Surah Al-Mumtahana): You who believe, test the believing women when they come to you as emigrants - God knows best about their faith - and if you are sure of their belief, do not send them back to the disbelievers: they are not lawful wives for them, nor are the disbelievers their lawful husbands. Give the disbelievers whatever bride-gifts they have paid - if you choose to marry them, there is no blame on you once you have paid their bride-gifts - and do not yourselves hold on to marriage ties with disbelieving women. Ask for repayment of the bride-gifts you have paid, and let the disbelievers do the same. This is God's judgement: He judges between you, God is all knowing and wise. If any of you have wives who leave you for the disbelievers, and if your community subsequently acquires from them, then pay those whose wives have deserted them the equivalent of whatever bride-gift they paid. Be mindful of God, in whom you believe.

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